Both native and invasive amphibians have been detected using eDNA methods in waterways throughout southern California.  A species-specific primer was used to detect the presence and explore the distribution of invasive African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).  A metabarcoding approach was also used to detect Anuran and Caudata species, including: Arroyo toads (Anaxyrus californicus), Western toads (A. boreas), California treefrogs (Pseudacris cadaverina), Pacific treefrogs (P. regilla), African clawed frogs (X. laevis), American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), and California newt (Taricha torosa).  Additional samples will be collected to explore the ranges of Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) and California red-legged frogs (R. draytonii).  The distribution information can then be used to evaluate co-occurrence between native and invasive amphibians.  

Pictured: Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus)